For the Soul of France
Culture Wars in the Age of Dreyfus
By Frederick Brown
Knopf, Hardcover, 9780307266316, 336pp.
Publication Date: January 26, 2010
List Price: $28.95*
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Frederick Brown, cultural historian, author of acclaimed biographies of Émile Zola (“Magnificent”—The New Yorker) and Flaubert (“Splendid . . . Intellectually nuanced, exquisitely written”—The New Republic) now gives us an ambitious, far-reaching book—a perfect joining of subject and writer: a portrait of fin-de-siècle France.
He writes about the forces that led up to the twilight years of the nineteenth century when France, defeated by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, was forced to cede the border states of Alsace and Lorraine, and of the resulting civil war, waged without restraint, that toppled Napoléon III, crushed the Paris Commune, and provoked a dangerous nationalism that gripped the Republic.
The author describes how postwar France, a nation splintered in the face of humiliation by the foreigner—Prussia—dissolved into two cultural factions: moderates, proponents of a secular state (“Clericalism, there is the enemy!”), and reactionaries, who saw their ideal nation—militant, Catholic, royalist—embodied by Joan of Arc, with their message, that France had suffered its defeat in 1871 for having betrayed its true faith. A bitter debate took hold of the heart and soul of the country, framed by the vision of “science” and “technological advancement” versus “supernatural intervention.”
Brown shows us how Paris’s most iconic monuments that rose up during those years bear witness to the passionate decades-long quarrel. At one end of Paris was Gustave Eiffel’s tower, built in iron and more than a thousand feet tall, the beacon of a forward-looking nation; at Paris’ other end, at the highest point in the city, the basilica of the Sacré-Coeur, atonement for the country’s sins and moral laxity whose punishment was France’s defeat in the war . . .
Brown makes clear that the Dreyfus Affair—the cannonade of the 1890s—can only be understood in light of these converging forces. “The Affair” shaped the character of public debate and informed private life. At stake was the fate of a Republic born during the Franco-Prussian War and reared against bitter opposition.
The losses that abounded during this time—the financial loss suffered by thousands in the crash of the Union Génerale, a bank founded in 1875 to promote Catholic interests with Catholic capital outside the Rothschilds’ sphere of influence, along with the failure of the Panama Canal Company—spurred the partisan press, which blamed both disasters on Jewry.
The author writes how the roiling conflicts that began thirty years before Dreyfus did not end with his exoneration in 1900. Instead they became the festering point that led to France’s surrender to Hitler’s armies in 1940, when the Third Republic fell and the Vichy government replaced it, with Marshal Pétain heralded as the latest incarnation of Joan of Arc, France’s savior . . .
Frederick Brown is the author of Flaubert, which was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award in biography, and Zola, named an Editor’s Choice by The New York Times Book Review as one of the best books of the year. Brown has twice been the recipient of both Guggenheim and National Endowment for the Humanities fellowships. He lives in New York City.
"Brown has the rare ability to write reliable and well-researched history for a broad nonspecialized public. Francophiles, in particular, will love this book."
—Susan Rubin Suleiman, The New York Times Book Review
"Brown’s storytelling is vivacious and fluid, but he also keeps a firm hand on his chronicle, bringing order and perspective to these often chaotic times . . . For the Soul of France offers a great deal of instruction and many narrative pleasures (even for a French reader). After reading it, visitors to the City of Light, and Parisians themselves, may never look at the Eiffel Tower and the Sacré-Cœur quite the same way again."
—Michel Gurfinkiel, The Wall Street Journal
"Richly illustrated . . . an important work of cultural and intellectual history."
—Library Journal (starred)
"For the Soul of France is masterful history, brilliantly researched, and hard to put down."
—Henry A. Kissinger
"For the Soul of France is a very good example of cultural history. It suggest that even in the heyday of bourgeois materialism, the most important, and often decisive, matter was what large groups of people preferred to think and believe. His episodes are well-selected, and their developments well-written."
—John Lukacs, author of Budapest 1900: A Historical Portrait of a City and Its Culture; Historical Consciousness: Or, The Remembered Past; The Duel: The Eighty-Day Struggle Between Churchill and Hitler
"A master of the fin de siècle, Brown will engross Francophiles."
“Nobody outside France writes better about French history and culture in the late 19th Century than Frederick Brown, and his latest book, FOR THE SOUL OF FRANCE, brings to life for anyone who enjoys history, the Third Republic's immense eruption of scandal; artistic, scientific and technological innovation and creativity. It is a period of
artistic triumph and of political turmoil, the latter increased by the ferocity of a nation divided by defeat in 1871, and by a moral and religious schism that culminated in the Dreyfus Case. The names alone--Gambetta, Thiers, Eiffel, de Lesseps, Zola, Boulanger, Clemenceau--mark the richness of the era, with its fatal combination of dissent, pugnacity, fin de siecle bourgeois luxury and revolutionary art, all of it overshadowed by the thirst for revenge against Germany that brought France to enter the First World War, and the martyrdom of a whole generation, with such misguided enthusiasm. This is the world that ended in 1914 and that all of Europe would look back on with such nostalgia and regret; it is an epic piece of history on a grand scale, full of deeply disturbing resemblances to our own.”
—Michael Korda, author of IKE, ULYSSES S. GRANT and WITH WINGS