Hell to Pay
Operation Downfall and the Invasion of Japan, 1945-1947
By D. M. Giangreco
US Naval Institute Press, Hardcover, 9781591143161, 362pp.
Publication Date: October 2009
List Price: $36.95*
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The atom bombs dropped on Japan in 1945 killed — by some estimates — more than 200,000 people. In Hell To Pay, military historian D.M. Giangreco argues that the alternative, a land invasion of Japan, would have been many times more deadly. Japanese estimates, Giangreco says, set the figure at 20 million. More at NPR.org
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